Download Transport Processes in Pharmaceutical Systems (Drugs and the by Gordon L. Amidon, Ping I. Lee, Elizabeth M. Topp PDF
By Gordon L. Amidon, Ping I. Lee, Elizabeth M. Topp
This state-of-the-art reference sincerely explains pharmaceutical delivery phenomena, demonstrating functions starting from drug or nutrient uptake into vesicle or mobile suspensions, drug dissolution and absorption throughout organic membranes, entire physique kinetics, and drug free up from polymer reservoirs and matrices to warmth and mass shipping in freeze-drying and hygroscopicity. specializes in functional functions of drug supply from a actual and mechanistic viewpoint, highlighting organic structures. Written via greater than 30 overseas gurus within the box, delivery procedures in Pharmaceutical platforms ·discusses the an important dating among the delivery technique and thermodynamic elements ·analyzes the dynamics of diffusion at liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and liquid-cultured phone interfaces ·covers prodrug layout for bettering membrane shipping ·addresses the results of exterior stimuli in changing a few average and artificial polymer matrices ·examines houses of hydrogels, together with synthesis, swelling measure, swelling kinetics, permeability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability ·presents mass move of substances and pharmacokinetics in keeping with mass stability descriptions ·and extra! Containing over one thousand references and greater than 1100 equations, drawings, images, micrographs, and tables, delivery approaches in Pharmaceutical structures is a must-read source for examine pharmacists, pharmaceutical scientists and chemists, chemical engineers, actual chemists, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate scholars in those disciplines.
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Extra resources for Transport Processes in Pharmaceutical Systems (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences)
5), the net contribution by diffusion and convection now becomes (n z ) in Ϫ (n z ) out ϭ Ϫdx dy dz ∂n z ∂z (12) The rate of accumulation of solute molecules in the element is still dx dy dz ∂c ∂t (13) In addition, reaction is considered. The rate of production of solute molecules by homogeneous reaction is dx dy dz R (14) where R is the rate per unit volume of a homogeneous chemical reaction producing solute. From mass balance (the rate of accumulation ϭ net contribution by diffusion and convection ϩ rate of production), we have TM Copyright n 2000 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.
The premise of a steady state is approximately satisfied. Such an approximation will not cause a serious error, however. In general, it is easier to measure the permeability coefficient than the partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and membrane thickness. Once permeability is measured, it is difficult to separate the contributions of the individual variables. We often see permeability coefficients being reported in the literature instead of the more fundamental partition coefficient and diffusion coefficient being reported separately.
All Rights Reserved. in space, occurring by the two major mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Convection is mass transfer occurring in response to a spatial gradient in pressure. In the simplest cases, convective mass transfer can be described by stirred tank or plug flow models. These models assume constant fluid velocities or flow rates; when constant velocity cannot be assumed, the Navier–Stokes equations can be used to describe more complex velocity profiles. Diffusion is mass transfer occurring in response to a spatial gradient in concentration and as the result of random thermal motion of molecules.