Download Lignin and lignans as renewable raw materials : chemistry, by Francisco G. Calvo-Flores, José A. Dobado, Joaqu?n PDF

By Francisco G. Calvo-Flores, José A. Dobado, Joaqu?n Isac-Garc?a, Francisco J. Mart?n-Mart?nez

As certainly happening and considerable assets of non-fossil carbon, lignin and lignans provide intriguing percentages as a resource of commercially worthy items, relocating clear of petrochemical-based feedstocks in favour of renewable uncooked fabrics. Lignin can be utilized at once in fields reminiscent of agriculture, farm animals, soil rehabilitation, bioremediation and the polymer undefined, or it may be chemically transformed for the fabrication of area of expertise and high-value chemical compounds akin to resins, adhesives, fuels and greases.

Lignin and Lignans as Renewable uncooked fabrics offers a multidisciplinary review of the cutting-edge and destiny clients of lignin and lignans. The publication discusses the foundation, constitution, functionality and purposes of either sorts of compounds, describing the most assets and values of those items as carbon uncooked materials.

Topics coated include:

• Structure and physicochemical properties
• Lignin detection methods
• Biosynthesis of lignin
• Isolation methods
• Characterization and amendment of lignins
• Applications of converted and unmodified lignins
• Lignans: constitution, chemical and organic properties
• Future perspectives

This publication is a accomplished source for researchers, scientists and engineers in academia and engaged on new percentages for the appliance of renewable uncooked materials.

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Extra info for Lignin and lignans as renewable raw materials : chemistry, technology and applications

Sample text

Anatomically, softwoods are nonporous and do not contain vessel. Typi- cally, softwoods are cone-bearing plants with needle- or scale-like evergreen leaves. 11 O 11 CH OCH3 CH2 CH3O OH 7 O CH CH CH CH CH CH CH2OH CH3O O OH 4 CH2OH OCH3 CH 17 15 CH2OH CH O OCH3 18 CH OCH3 CH CH CH2 2 1 CH2OH CO CHOH OCH3 CH2 CH CH3O CH2OH CH 16 CH2OH CO CH3O CH2OH CH2OH CH 1 O O OCH3 O Lignin according to Neish [28] were not accounted for in a complete way [27]. 13). 16) according to degradation products resulting from hydrolysis with dioxane/water and catalytic hydrogenolysis.

In conclusion, unlike softwood and hardwood lignins, for herbaceous plants, there is no commonly accepted structural model that accurately describes these lignins, mainly due to the aforementioned diversity of lignin types in herbaceous plants. The most detailed structural data come from the composition analysis of the fragments and from the study of some isolated fragments. 1 Genetically Modify Species In recent years, a research line has been opened in order to develop genetically modified plant species with several purposes.

Freudenberg K. The constitution and biosynthesis of lignin. In: Freudenberg K, Neish AC, editors. Constitution and Biosynthesis of Lignin, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Biophysics. vol. 2. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1968. p. 45–122. Vanholme R, Demedts B, Morreel K, Ralph J, Boerjan W. Lignin biosynthesis and structure. Plant Physiol. 2010;153(3):895–905. Austin AT, Ballaré CL. Dual role of lignin in plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4618–4622.

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