Download Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to by Mica R. Endsley PDF
By Mica R. Endsley
This ebook is directed at human components researchers and practitioners who're engaged in designing platforms to help scenario information (SA) in a large choice of components and is liberally illustrated with genuine layout examples.
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Extra resources for Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design
As a final aid to SA, people also may develop scripts associated with each schema. Scripts are set sequences of actions on what to do in each case that a schema represents. These scripts may have been developed through experience, or may be dictated within the domain. For instance, a doctor has a well-developed script of what to do for a person with a particular disease. A pilot has a welldeveloped set of procedures to follow for different types of situations. Military commanders follow doctrine.
For instance, in certain displays that showed pictures of outdoor scenes, expectcd locations of targets were automatically cued on a computer screen (via a circlc or pointer). People searching for those targets were much more likely to misidentify other items in these cued locations as targets when the real targets were actually elsewhere, as compared to their performance with displays wherc expected locations were not indicated (Yeh & Wickens, 2001). Pilots have becn known to go seriously off course by incorrectly matching landmarks to their cxpectations with sometimes tragic results (Endsley, 1995b).
Automaticity for mental tasks as well as physical tasks is also possible (Logan, 1988). , pressing the brakes) in a tightly coupled sequence. Automaticity can be observed in many tasks from driving a car to flying an aircraft. Automaticity is advantageous to SA because it requires very little conscious attention to process information, freeing up inental resources for other tasks. This is particularly true for automaticity of physical tasks (like steering the car or balancing on the bicyclc). 8 Autotnaticity in cogtlttive processes (from Endsiey, 2000b) It can also be a significant problem for SA, however, when automaticity of mental tasks is involved.