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Additional resources for Deposition, Retention, and Dosimetry of Inhaled Radioactive Substances: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (N C R P Report)

Example text

P region deposition was reduced. , 1985). Physiological factors that influence clearance rates or pathways are multiple, and include mucus quantity and rheology, epithelial function, macrophage function, lymphatic fluid flow and probably others. Even minor respiratory tract illnesses can drastically affect these factors. , 1992). In this circumstance, clearance of mucus may only be accomplished by frequent coughing. Viral invasion destroys ciliated cells, goblet cells and many bronchial mucus gland cells.

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT escalator in a random or a directed manner, perhaps along a density gradient. By this hypothesis, macrophages pass through the alveolar epithelial wall into the interstitial spaces and re-enter ciliated airways. Small collections of lymphatic tissue exist a t alveolobronchiolar junctions (Macklin, 1955)and macrophages that pass through the alveolar wall into the lymphatic system may re-enter the airway lumen a t these sites. However, it is possible that cells observed to be following these interstitial clearance pathways were actually interstitial macrophages that ingested particles and passed through the alveolar epithelium.

Inhalability is defined as the fraction of the suspended material in ambient air that actually enters the nose or mouth with the volume of air inhaled. It is a function of several factors, including particle aerodynamic size, inspiratory flow rate, wind speed and wind direction. For lack of specific experimental data pertaining to differences that might result from breathing through the nose and mouth, both are considered equivalent in the following discussion. The inhalable fraction averaged over all wind directions was related to particle aerodynamic size (dae)by the following relationship: for 0 < dae5 100 km where E is the fraction of ambient airborne particles that are inhalable.

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