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By Douglas Albrecht, Adrian Ziderman

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Additional info for Deferred cost recovery for higher education: student loan programs in developing countries, Parts 63-137

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Series. 3'62'091724dc20 91-35046 CIP Page iii Abstract Given the growing demand for access to higher education, and the declining quality and available resources from governments, many governments, particularly in developing countries, have attempted to increase student contributions. In many instances, however, governments have encountered problems increasing cost recovery without deterring access among lower income students. Despite clear economic and financial rationale, tuition increases can be difficult to implement because of the inability of many students (and their parents) to pay fees out of current income.

The low initial cost recovery is compounded by loan programs which require further government expenditure just to recover costs in a deferred form. If loans are to be used to foster cost recovery, significant fee levels must be established. To date, loans have been operating only at the margins of cost recovery. 8 There is a 15 percent discount if the student pays fees directly. The Australian scheme allows this discount in recognition of the hidden subsidy on the loan. However, as calculated for average income earners, this discount is well below the loan subsidy.

In developing countries, tracking mobile students can be extremely difficult, making administrative costs higher. The small average size of loans makes them proportionately more costly. No detailed comparative study of costs of loan programs has been conducted, and data are mostly limited to those from developing countries. The most efficiently run operations in Sweden, Hong Kong and Canada costs report ranging between a half and one percent of outstanding debt each year. Page 18 (Woodhall 1983, Woodhall 1990(b), Quebec Student Financial Assistance Program 1990).

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