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By Cliff Goddard

Cross-linguistic semantics – investigating how languages package deal and exhibit meanings in a different way – is crucial to the linguistic quest to appreciate the character of human language. This set of reports explores and demonstrates cross-linguistic semantics as practised within the typical semantic metalanguage (NSM) framework, originated by way of Anna Wierzbicka. the hole chapters provide a cutting-edge assessment of the NSM version, suggest numerous theoretical ideas and improve a couple of unique analyses in reference to names and naming, clefts and different specificational sentences, and discourse anaphora. next chapters describe and examine different phenomena in ten languages from a number of households, geographical destinations, and cultural settings world wide. 3 monstrous reviews record how the metalanguage of NSM semantic primes will be realised in languages of greatly different types: Amharic (Ethiopia), Korean, and East Cree. each one constitutes a lexicogrammatical portrait in miniature of the language involved. different chapters probe themes corresponding to inalienable ownership in Koromu (Papua New Guinea), epistemic verbs in Swedish, hyperpolysemy in Bunuba (Australia), the expression of "momentariness" in Berber, ethnogeometry in Makasai (East Timor), price techniques in Russian, and “virtuous feelings” in eastern. This publication can be helpful for linguists engaged on language description, lexical semantics, or the semantics of grammar, for complicated scholars of linguistics, and for others attracted to language universals and language range.

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Anthropological Linguistics, 33(1): 31-56. Goddard, Cliff. 1994. Semantic theory and semantic universals. In Semantic and Lexical Universals – Theory and Empirical Findings, Cliff Goddard and Anna Wierzbicka (eds), 7– 30. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Goddard, Cliff. 1998. Semantic Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Goddard, Cliff. 2001. Lexico-semantic universals: A critical overview. Linguistic Typology 5(1): 1–66. Goddard, Cliff. 2002. Ethnosyntax, ethnopragmatics, sign-functions, and culture.

Finally, a clause with KNOW and a propositional complement: ‘I know that I can’t be with this someone now’. For a second example, we will take not a semantic explication, but a cultural script written in the natural semantic metalanguage. Cultural scripts are the main mode of representation in the theory of ethnopragmatics, which is the pragmatic sister theory of the NSM approach to semantics (Wierzbicka 2003 [1991]; Goddard and Wierzbicka eds 2004; Goddard ed. 2006). Essentially, cultural scripts represent hypotheses about shared understandings of widely held social attitudes pertaining to ways of speaking, and the like.

In press a. Contrastive semantics of physical activity verbs: ‘Cutting’ and ‘chopping’ in English, Polish, and Japanese. Language Sciences. NSM: The state of the art 31 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Goddard, Cliff and Anna Wierzbicka. In press b. Universal human concepts as a basis for contrastive linguistic semantics. In Current Trends in Contrastive Linguistics: Functional and Cognitive Perspectives, María de los Ángeles Gómez-González, Lachlan Mackenzie, and Elsa Gonzáles Álvarez (eds).

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