Download Complexity, Volume 16, Issue 5, May June 2011 by Peter Schuster, Alfred W. Hubler PDF
By Peter Schuster, Alfred W. Hubler
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Extra resources for Complexity, Volume 16, Issue 5, May June 2011
2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity 16: 37–44, 2011 Key Words: evolution; complexity; cooperation; organization 1. INTRODUCTION W e use metaphors, models, and languages to describe our world. Different descriptions may be more suitable than others. We tend to select from a pool of different descriptions those that ﬁt with a particular purpose. P. F. , Vol. 16, No. com) descriptions of the same phenomena, useful for different purposes. In this article, the σ proﬁle is introduced to describe the organization of systems at multiple scales.
However, as we observe the satisfactions of agents at different scales (spatial and temporal), it can be argued that the survivability of a system is related to the satisfaction of the highest scale. Lower scale gains (spatial or temporal) will be overturned eventually by organizations that manage to constrain the behavior at lower scales. For the “selﬁsh” beneﬁt of the higher scales, the integrity of lower scales will be maintained, increasing their survivability. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
1563]. As a future work, it would be interesting to study the role of friction reduction in evolution and the way in which different mechanisms (mediators) achieve it from the perspective presented here. Also, the application of the σ proﬁle to particular problems in evolutionary game theory and in economics would be of extreme interest. Acknowledgments Systems can achieve high satisfaction with mediators [18–21] to reduce friction between agents. Friction reduction can be seen as a generalization of cooperation, which is The author thanks all the people who have contributed to this work in recent years and an anonymous referee for useful comments.