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By Ewa Dabrowska
Drawing at the conceptual gear of cognitive grammar, this article goals to deliver order into the array of makes use of through supplying a unified semantic characterization of the dative case which subsumes either "lexically ruled" and "free" datives.
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Extra resources for Cognitive Semantics and the Polish Dative
The sentences in (69) are unusual in that the active human participant is not the subject in spite of the fact that no other nominal competes for this role. The semantic effect of expressing the active participant by means of a dative rather than a nominative NP is to imply that the TP's success or lack of success in accomplishing his goal is due more to luck or external conditions than to her own potency. 4. Beneficiary datives The recipient, the person to whom something is made available or for whom something is created and the person whom the agent assists are all special cases of a more inclusive category, that of "beneficiary", or the person for whose benefit the action is performed.
One's diary or bankbook) which, when examined, might reveal facts about the owner which he might not want people to know about. In the latter case, the (potential) affectedness of the target person is obvious. With body parts, there is usually additional motivation: either the sentence has sexual overtones (in (42b), it was not Ewa's ankles that Adam was looking at, and the looking was no innocent gaze), or else the verb of looking occurs in idiomatic or semi-idiomatic combinations which imply the affectedness of the recipient.
The various actions described here make it possible for the TP to build a fire, make telephone calls, eat, and wear the dress. However, the verb itself does not evoke the future action or the target person's potency. 1 than the "lexically governed" datives of this section. On the other hand, if one assumes an encyclopedic view of semantics, it could be argued, for example, that, since food is cooked to make it ready for eating, the concept of cooking invokes the concept of eating and hence also the eater.