Download Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ellen Ruppel Shell PDF

By Ellen Ruppel Shell

An Atlantic correspondent uncovers the real cost-in financial, political, and psychic terms-of our penchant for making and purchasing issues as cost effectively as possible

From the shuttered factories of the rust belt to the look-alike strip department stores of the sunlight belt-and nearly far and wide in between-America has been reworked by way of its relentless fixation on low cost. This pervasive but little tested obsession is arguably the main robust and devastating marketplace strength of our time-the engine of globalization, outsourcing, deliberate obsolescence, and financial instability in an more and more unsettled world.

low cost is so eye-catching that we can have forgotten how completely we as soon as distrusted it. Ellen Ruppel Shell strains the start of the cut price as we all know it from the commercial Revolution to the meeting line and past, homing in on a few colourful characters, comparable to Gene Verkauf (his identify is Yiddish for "to sell"), founding father of E. J. Korvette, the cut price chain that helped wean buyers off conventional notions of worth. the increase of the departmental store in post-Depression the USA resulted in the extolling of comfort over caliber, and big-box shops accomplished the reeducation of the yank purchaser through making them prize low cost within the method they as soon as prized longevity and craftsmanship.

the results of this insidious perceptual shift are gigantic: a blighted panorama, escalating debt (both own and national), stagnating earning, fraying groups, and a bunch of alternative socioeconomic ills. That's an extended checklist of fees, and it runs counter to orthodox economics which argues that low cost powers productiveness through stimulating a brisk unfastened industry. yet Shell marshals proof from a variety of fields-history, sociology, advertising and marketing, psychology, even economics itself-to upend the normal knowledge. Cheap additionally unveils the attention-grabbing and unsettling illogic that underpins our bargain-hunting reflex and explains how our deep-rooted desire for deals colours each element of our psyches and social lives. during this myth-shattering, heavily reasoned, and exhaustively suggested research, Shell exposes the astronomically excessive rate of inexpensive.

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The Attalids, consistent friends of Rome, shielded the Greek cities of Asia from the nomadic Galatians (a Celtic people) and copied the Ptolemies' cultural policy in maintaining the Pergamum library. The native kingdoms of Asia Minor (Cappadocia, Pontus, and Armenia) were only superficially Hellenized during the Hellenistic Age. Deeper in Bithynia the warlike Galatians remained largely untouched by Hellenism until the Roman period. Bibliography Austin, M. M. The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation.

Augustus was careful to act in the right ways as a citizen, but he accepted the halos of artists and writers (who did an important service in promoting the new reign), and in the east he stepped into the place of earlier monarchs. There was a great emphasis on peace: his rule ushered in the pax romana. After the wars of the preceding period a genuine sense of gratitude was expressed toward Augustus for the restoration of peace. He promoted this virtue of his reign, given monumental expression in the ara pads (altar of peace) in Rome, whose reliefs are a noble expression of the ideals of the principate.

W. Alexander the Great. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1948. Reprint. Boston, 1956. Griffith, G. , ed. Alexander the Great: The Main Problems. Cambridge, 1966. Milns, R. D. Alexander the Great. London, 1968. Green, Peter. Alexander the Great. New York, 1970. Burch, Nancy J. Alexander the Great: A Bibliography. Kent State University Press, 1970. POLITICAL HISTORY 15 Fox, Robin Lane. Alexander the Great. London, 1973. Bosworth, A. B. Conquest and Empire: The Reign ofAlexander the Great. Cambridge, 1990. THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS The Diadochi Alexander's generals at first attempted to maintain a regency for Alexander's half-wit brother and the son of his wife Roxanne, still unborn at the time of his death.

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