Download Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Updated 6th Edition by Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai PDF
By Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai MD
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Additional info for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Updated 6th Edition
Each step is orchestrated by several different tlpes of molecules. l. Selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes on endothelium. macrophages) that encounter the microbes, endothelial cells lining postcapillary venules at the site of infection rapidly increase surface expression of proteins called selectins (Box 2-2). C1'tokines are discussed in more detail in Chapter 12; the most important ones for activating the endothelium are tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). es of selectins expressedby endothelial cells are P-selectin,which is stored in cltoplasmic granules and is rapidly redistributed to the surface in responseto microbial products and cytokines, and E-selectin, which is synthesized in response to IL-l and TNF as well as microbial products, and is expressed on the cell surface within I to 2 hours.
The major classesof these receptors are discussed next. a The pattern recognition receptors of the innqte immune system are encoded in germline DNA. In contrast, T and B lymphocytes, the principal compo_ nents of adaptive immunity, use somatic gene rearrangement to generate their antigen receptors (seeChapter8). Becausemany fewer receptorscin be encoded in the germline than can be generated through gene rearrangements, the innate immune system has a limited repertoire of specificities. It is estimated that the innate immune system can recog_ nize about 103 molecular patterns of microbes.
In T lymphocytes,ICAM-I bindingto B2integrinsmay providecostimulatory signals t h a t e n h a n c ec y t o k i n eg e n e e x p r e s s i o na, l t h o u g ht h i s activityof integrinsis probablyless importantthan their r o l ei n c e l l - c e al l d h e s i o n . 2Chaoter state in unactivated cells and ineffective in mediating adhesion interactions. TWo consequences of chemokine receptor signaling are enhanced aff,nity of leukoclte integrins for their ligands, and membrane clustering of the integrins, resulting in increased avidity of integrin-mediated binding of the leukocytes to the endothelial surface.