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By Dr. méd. Tomas Pexieder (auth.)

In spite of the continued growth of analysis within the fields of mobile and molecular biology, which has orientated many embryologists in the direction of molecular biology, no concrete clarification of morphogenesis has but been discovered. the current nation of data of middle improvement is characterised through a tremendous discrepancy among the qualitative descriptions of what occurs at the organ point and the kind of quantitative info on subcellular and molecular occasions. it's as a rule now not understood how cells shape tissues and the way tissues generate specific sorts of an organ. In an try and fill the gaps we systematically studied within the interval 1968 to 1973 one of many common yet quite overlooked morphogenetic mechanisms which integrates cells into tissues and organs-cell demise. just a small a part of our study on telephone demise within the improvement of chick, rat and human embryo hearts has as but been released in extenso. such a lot of it's been communicated in papers brought at assorted medical conferences. we wish to take advantage of the chance provided via Advances to offer a syn­ thesis and integrative evaluation of our effects. during this means the particular interval of discovery of the lifestyles of telephone demise and of its morphogenetic function within the middle improvement come to an finish. This opens up the following section of our learn which is composed in reports of ways cellphone demise is built-in with different morphogenetic mechanisms.

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Additional resources for Cell death in the morphogenesis and teratogenesis of the heart

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Is in Figs. 36 and 37. 75 relative volume percent of the heart wall consists of cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. The most important nuclear compartment is that of the cells in interphase (12 reI. - %). The maximal variation can be found in the remaining 13%. 5% of mitotic nuclei. 6. A careful analysis of Figs. 36 and 37 reveals the presence of three subpopulations with different tissue dynamics. The first of these subpopulations with high degenerative and low mitotic values, represent the areas of morphogenetic cell death, meanwhile the second, with a lower degeneration and a higher proliferation rate corresponds to histogenetic cell death.

In the distal ventral bulbar cushion (Fig. d. d. d. 8 h when it decreases significantly. d. , reaching its maximum 8 h later. d. The maximal intensity in the proximal right bulbar cushion (x =57) was lower than that of the distal ventral bulbar cushion (x =97). d. 16 h. d. d. d. 16 h. d. d. As in other bulbar cushions this culmination was followed by a significant diminution of the degenerative activity in the next 8 h. Summarizing this part of our report it may be said that the heart bulb of the chick embryo is traversed in a disto-proximal direction by waves of spontaneous degeneration.

D. d. d. 16 h. In the cultured bulbar halves we never saw any significant difference between the right and left side and therefore for a further evaluation these were pooled together (Fig. 46). d. showed the presence of some macrophages. There was no significant modification of their density through the whole 48 h of the culture. During the same time period in ovo the macrophage density increased in a characteristic manner (Fig. 46) being at any stage signifi- Fig. 42. d. after 48 h of culture.

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