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By L Hamill
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Extra info for Bridge hydraulics
French, 1986; Hydrologic Engineering Center, 1990; Chadwick and Morfett, 1993). In the reach affected by the backwater the depth will be greater than normal, so the velocity and energy loss are less than would otherwise occur. Unless the constriction is very severe the flow is usually subcritical, with gradually varied flow upstream and downstream of the structure and rapidly varying flow at the bridge. e. not submerged) the water surface is drawn down as it approaches the opening (of width or span b).
After Neill, 1973. Reproduced by permission of University of Toronto Press) b Multiplying factors for local scour at skewed piers* (to be applied to local scour allowances of part a). 5 *The table is intended to indicate the approximate range only. Design depths for severely skewed piers, where the use of these is unavoidable, should preferably be determined by means of special model tests. The values quoted are based approximately on graphs by Laursen (1962). Page 30 survey work and computation.
G. French, 1986; Hydrologic Engineering Center, 1990; Chadwick and Morfett, 1993). In the reach affected by the backwater the depth will be greater than normal, so the velocity and energy loss are less than would otherwise occur. Unless the constriction is very severe the flow is usually subcritical, with gradually varied flow upstream and downstream of the structure and rapidly varying flow at the bridge. e. not submerged) the water surface is drawn down as it approaches the opening (of width or span b).