Download Boundary Layer Climates, Second Edition by T. R. Oke PDF

By T. R. Oke

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Extra resources for Boundary Layer Climates, Second Edition

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Clouds therefore absorb much of L↑ from the surface and re-emit it back so that L↓ is enhanced, and L* reduced. 9 after 18 h. The cloud emission depends on the cloud-base temperature, therefore the effect of Stratus (low, relatively warm) is much greater than Altus or Cirrus (high, cold) cloud. The net result of cloud is to damp the diurnal surface radiation budget variation, and serves to reduce the diurnal temperature range. This explains why cloudy weather is associated with comparatively uniform temperatures because daytime solar heating and night-time long-wave cooling are both reduced.

The latter are dominated by weather dynamics occurring at much larger scales than outlined above. ) extending to a depth where diurnal exchanges of water and heat become negligible. g. air temperature and humidity) in time and space. While this information conveys a useful impression of the state of the atmosphere at a location it does little to explain how this came about. Such parameters are really only indirect measures of more fundamental quantities. Air temperature and humidity are really a gauge of the thermal energy and water status of the atmosphere respectively, and these are tied to the fundamental energy and water cycles of the Earth-Atmosphere system.

5 it can be seen that the Sun’s peak wavelength is about 0·48 µm (in the middle of the visible spectrum), whereas for the E-A system it is about 10 µm. Typical wavelengths for radiation from the Sun extend from 0·15 µm (ultra-violet) to about 3·0 µm (near infra-red), whereas E-A system radiant wavelengths extend from 3·0 µm to about 100 µm, well into the infra-red. In fact the difference between the two radiation regimes is conveniently distinct; about 99% of the total energy emitted by the two planets lies within these limits.

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