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By Hermann Ehrlich

This is the second one monograph via the writer on organic fabrics of marine foundation. The preliminary publication is devoted to the organic fabrics of marine invertebrates. This paintings is a resource of recent wisdom on biomineralization, biomimetics and fabrics technology with appreciate to marine vertebrates. For the 1st time in clinical literature the writer offers the main coherent research of the character, starting place and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers remoted from and saw within the huge number of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and inside their special hierarchically geared up structural formations. there's a wealth of latest and newly synthesized info, together with dozens of formerly unpublished pictures of certain marine creatures together with extinct, extant and residing taxa and their biocomposite-based buildings from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph studies the main correct advances within the marine organic fabrics examine box, declaring a number of ways being brought and explored through special sleek laboratories.

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1999, 2009; Botella et al. 2007). According to the different attachment of their fins to the body, this class split into two main lineages, the Actinopterygii and the Sarcopterygii (lobe-fins) (Zhu et al. 2006). In Sarcopterygians fins can be moved freely in different directions because they are connected to the body via a single radial bone (Janvier 1996; Zhu and Schultze 1997). Nowadays, the lobe-fins are represented only by six species of lungfishes (Lepidosiren paradoxa, Neoceratodus forsteri), and four species of Protopterus and the famous coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae).

An Overview 35 terrestrial environment (see for review Brischoux and Bonnet 2009). Studies about the mechanical properties of sea snake skin (Jyane 1988) are of importance for bionics, as well as for biomaterials science. For example, different variations in the surface hydrophobic properties of the sea snake skin in seawater are currently the subject of ongoing investigations (Lillywhite et al. 2009). It was shown that the external skin surfaces of marine Laticauda snakes studied by Lillywhite and coworkers are hydrophobic.

The upper and lower 32 1 Introduction beak surfaces meet at a ridged surface that can be knife-sharp like in case of the marine loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). This animal is capable of slicing through prey as hard as mineralized molluscs or crabs shells (see for review Wyneken 2001). From biomaterials point of view, the multiscale structure, material properties, and mechanical responses (Richmond 1964) of the turtles shells were recently intensively studied to better understand “naturally occurring biological penetratorarmor systems,” (Rhee et al.

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