Download Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications by Worldwatch Institute PDF
By Worldwatch Institute
The area is at the verge of an unheard of bring up within the creation and use of biofuels for shipping. the combo of emerging oil costs, problems with safeguard, weather instability and pollutants, deepening poverty in rural and agricultural parts, and a bunch of more suitable applied sciences, is propelling governments to enact robust incentives for using those fuels, that's in flip sparking funding. Biofuels for delivery is a different and accomplished evaluate of the possibilities and hazards of the large-scale creation of biofuels. The ebook demystifies advanced questions and issues, reminiscent of the ?food v. gas? debate. international in scope, it really is additional expert via 5 nation stories from Brazil, China, Germany, India and Tanzania. The authors finish that biofuels will play an important function in our power destiny, yet warn that the large-scale use of biofuels contains dangers that require centred and speedy coverage projects. released in organization with BMELV, FNR and GTZ.
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Extra resources for Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Energy and Agriculture
Since ethanol molecules contain oxygen (unlike gasoline molecules), ethanol fuel is referred to as an ‘oxygenate’. The oxygen in ethanol can improve the fuel combustion process, helping to reduce the emission of pollutants such as carbon monoxide, ozone-forming unburned hydrocarbons and carcinogenic particulates. However, for related reasons, ethanol combustion also reacts with more atmospheric nitrogen, which can marginally increase emissions of ozone-forming nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases. Since ethanol also contains a negligible amount of sulphur compared to petroleum, blending ethanol in gasoline helps to reduce the sulphur content of the fuel, resulting in lower sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions, which can contribute to both acid rain and cancer concerns (for more on ethanol’s emissions characteristics, see Chapter 13).
RELATIVE FEEDSTOCK YIELDS In countries that have fostered the development of biofuels, the primary impetus has typically been to subsidize or otherwise support the agricultural sector. This remains a central priority to biofuel initiatives around the world, which have generally promoted agricultural crops that are already produced at a large scale for the human food and animal feed markets. To date, only a relatively few types of crops have provided the vast majority of the world’s fuel ethanol and biodiesel.
Elsewhere in Latin America, as of 2006, Colombia will be mandating the use of 10 per cent ethanol in all gasoline sold in cities with populations over 500,000. In Venezuela, the state oil company is supporting the construction of 15 sugar cane distilleries over the next ﬁve years as the government phases in a national E10 blending mandate. In Bolivia, 15 distilleries are being constructed, and the government is considering authorizing blends of E25. 38 In Malaysia and Indonesia, the palm oil industries plan to supply an increasing proportion of the countries’ diesel.