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By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr
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Extra info for Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond
S. born, were removed from western coastal regions and “relocated” to guarded camps in isolated regions of the country. They were forced to liquidate their property and were transported to ten detention camps in California, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and Arkansas. The War Relocation Authority records indicate that 120,313 Japanese Americans were held in custody between 1942 and 1946 (Daniels 1988, 241). S. citizens (187). 2 percent were over fifty (Daniels 1993, 104). Camp conditions were poor because of overcrowding, the cost of food was rationed at forty-eight cents per internee, and there was a limited supply of coal for heating.
Yet David Lopez and Yen Espiritu argue that “structural factors, not cultural commonalties, better explain the emergence and success of panethnicity” (218). The structural factors that were instrumental in developing Asian panethnicity include (1) targeted violence, (2) outsiders’ perception that Asian ethnics are “foreigners” (Espiritu 1992; Tuan 1998), (3) racial lumping (Min 1999, 29), which is a result of the government’s classification of Asians as a minority population, and consequently (4) entitlement to affirmative action and other programs.
Social movement scholars have adapted the concept to attribute cognitive, cultural, and historical beliefs and ideologies to actors. According to Steven Buechler, “Framing means focusing attention on some bounded phenomenon by importing meaning and significance to elements within the frame and setting them apart from what is outside the frame. In the context of social movements, framing refers to the interactive, collective ways that movement actors assign meanings to their activities in the conduct of social movement activism.