Download Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, by Chris Barnard, Francis Gilbert, Peter Mcgregor PDF

By Chris Barnard, Francis Gilbert, Peter Mcgregor

The total advisor to functional paintings within the organic sciences: from belief of the research, via information assortment, information research and eventually presentation.

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Extra resources for Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects (3rd Edition)

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E. or SE) measures the spread of multiple sample means around the true population mean. ) of the true population mean. Since sample means are almost always normally distributed, almost whatever the distribution of the raw data, it is always OK to cite a standard error with your sample mean. The calculations are as follows: The standard deviation: 1. Calculate the sum of all the data values in your group (Σx). 2. Square the individual data values and sum them, giving (Σx 2). 3. Calculate Σx 2 − (Σx)2/n (remember that n is the sample size, the number of values in your set of data).

5 (halfway between 20 and 23). Note that the median may yield a value close to or very different from the mean. 1 and thus similar to the median. 58. qxd 18/06/2007 03:11PM Page 27 EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS 27 Again, we want some way of indicating how much confidence to place in the median. By far the simplest way is to find the confidence limits to the median using a standard table, part of which is shown in Appendix I. All we need to do is rank order our data values as before, count the number of values in the sample (n), then use n to read off a value r from the table.

Thus, suppose we had conducted an experiment looking at associations between anogenital sniffing (often a prelude to aggression) and circulating levels of the hormones testosterone (as a measure of sex hormone activity) and corticosterone (as a measure of stress levels) in male mice. g. (1) bare cage, (2) cage + nest material, (3) cage + nest material + nest boxes, (4) cage + nest material + nest boxes + shelves). The experiment consisted of introducing randomly chosen mice from eight different cages within each treatment into a clean empty cage and allowing them to interact one at a time with another randomly chosen mouse (different in each case) that had been kept on its own in an empty cage to standardise the social experience of the opponent across experimental subjects.

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