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By Professor Jean-Claude Gall (auth.)

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43). When the organism's position has been determined by a current, these traces show a preferred orientation (Fig. 91a). Resting traces are confmed to the photic zone (0-120 m). Below that, permanent darkness is enough to conceal animals from their enemies. 3. Feeding Traces a) Grazing traces with a sinuous pattern (helminthoids) are made by detritus-feeding organisms which methodically exploit the thin organicrich layer which carpets the mud and bedding planes (Fig. 45). b) Sediment feeders make a complex gallery system progressively infilled by the movement of the animal.

L. (. -4 '" _ _ ~ ~ -- ---- ~~ "- L ............ « ~ therium) -< L. ' -\ <- _ Print of fifth appendage Printoftelson . Pn nts of ante nor appendages Fig. 41. ), escape traces of animals accidentally buried by an influx of sediment (Fig. 42), etc. Striations, furrows and constrictions occur on their surface; they are the result of the activities of their maker and are used to identify the different ichnofossils. Bioturbation produced in sediment by a bivalve (Mya). (Schiifer 1963) Evidence of Biological Activity Fig.

The upper canines acted like daggers. The anterior of the jaw played the part of the scabbard. (Piveteau 1961) One can show that the arrangement of their teeth allowed them to stab their prey because of the powerful development of their neck muscles, but prevented them from pulverising the bones. These carnivores could feed only on soft tissue, especially the liver, which they reached by opening the abdomen of their victims. -- --f--- -- -- Centre of buoyancy Centre of gravity Body chamber Fig.

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