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By Dorothy Bartlett
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Extra resources for Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry
Some simple secondary and tertiary amines have common names: Fig. (a) Dimethylamine; (b) trimethylamine; (c) triethylamine. Thiols and Thioethers For naming thiols we add the suffix-thoil to the name of the parent alkane [Following fig(a). Thioethers are named like ethers using the prefix alkylthio, for example, 1 -(methylthio) propane. (b)]. CH2CH3 — SH H3C — S — CH3 H3C — S — CH2CH2CH3 (a) (b) (c) Fig. (a) Ethanethiol; (b) dimethylsulphide; (c) 1–(methylthiopropane). Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 34 Taxonomy: P rimar y, Secondar y, T ertiar y and Primar rimary Secondary Tertiar ertiary Quaternar y Quaternary Definition The primary (1°), secondary (2°), tertiary (3°) and quaternary (4°) nomenclature is used in a number of situations: to define a carbon centre, or to define functional groups like alcohols, halides, amines and amides.
CH2CH3 — SH H3C — S — CH3 H3C — S — CH2CH2CH3 (a) (b) (c) Fig. (a) Ethanethiol; (b) dimethylsulphide; (c) 1–(methylthiopropane). Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 34 Taxonomy: P rimar y, Secondar y, T ertiar y and Primar rimary Secondary Tertiar ertiary Quaternar y Quaternary Definition The primary (1°), secondary (2°), tertiary (3°) and quaternary (4°) nomenclature is used in a number of situations: to define a carbon centre, or to define functional groups like alcohols, halides, amines and amides.
Reactions Most of the organic reactions occur at functional groups and are characteristic of that functional group. However, the reactivity of the functional group is affected by stereoelectronic effects. For example, a functional group may be surrounded by bulky groups that hinder the approach of a reagent and slow down the rate of reaction. This is called as steric shielding. Electronic effects can also influence the rate of a reaction. Neighbouring groups can influence the reactivity of a functional group if they are electron-withdrawing or electron-donating and influence the electronic density within the functional group.