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2010). , 2004). , 2009b). A peptide derived from GRI can induce cell death in plants in the presence of superoxide. Interestingly cell death induced by GRI-peptide is dependent on superoxide produced by AtRBOHD but not AtRBOHF which could point to different timing of ROS production by different NADPH oxidases and different functions. However, while evidence could support a role for CRKs and GRI in ROS perception, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally tested. The intracellular redox status is sensed also by transcription factors.

Low light requires optimizing of light harvesting whereas high light leads to increased energy dissipation and photoinhibition. , 2004). The Arabidopsis npq4 mutant, lacking the minor subunit S of PSII (PSBS), is deficient in dissipation of excess energy and is more sensitive for photoinhibition during high light. , 2002). , 2003). , 2009). Changes in light quality induce imbalanced excitation of the two photosystems which have distinct absorption spectra. The mechanisms of acclimation include reversible phosphorylation and migration of a part of the light-harvesting antenna complexes between photosystems to balance the energy distribution (so-called state transitions).

When the stress is retired the plant may return to the original state or a new physiological state. Plants continually encounter stress even under environmental conditions that we think of as normal. The environment changes during the day, day to day and throughout the year, thus plants must respond to stress over the course of each day and often must respond to several stresses at the same time. Study of stress responses show that there is much crosstalk among signaling networks during specific stress responses.

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