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By Bertrand Russell

seeing that its first booklet in 1945? Lord Russell's A historical past of Western Philosophy has been universally acclaimed because the impressive one-volume paintings at the topic -- unheard of in its comprehensiveness, its readability, its erudition, its grace and wit. In seventy-six chapters he lines philosophy from the increase of Greek civilization to the emergence of logical research within the 20th century. one of the philosophers thought of are: Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, the Atomists, Protagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, the Stoics, Plotinus, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Benedict, Gregory the nice, John the Scot, Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, Machiavelli, Erasmus, extra, Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, the Utilitarians, Marx, Bergson, James, Dewey, and finally the philosophers with whom Lord Russell himself is so much heavily linked -- Cantor, Frege, and Whitehead, co-author with Russell of the huge Principia Mathematica.

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One of the many names of Bacchus. € Another tablet says:--"Hail, Thou who has suffered the suffering . . " The well-spring of which the soul is not to drink is Lethe, which brings forgetfulness; the other well-spring is Mnemosyne, remembrance. The soul in the next world, if it is to achieve salvation, is not to forget, but, on the contrary, to acquire a memory surpassing what is natural. The Orphics were an ascetic sect; wine, to them, was only a symbol, as, later, in the Christian sacrament.

Rationalistic as opposed to apocalyptic religion has been, ever since Pythagoras, and notably ever since Plato, very completely dominated by mathematics and mathematical method. The combination of mathematics and theology, which began with Pythagoras, characterized religious philosophy in Greece, in the Middle Ages, and in modern times down to Kant. Orphism before Pythagoras was analogous to Asiatic mystery religions. But in Plato, Saint Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, and Kant there is an intimate blending of religion and reasoning, of moral aspiration with logical admiration of what is timeless, which comes from Pythagoras, and distinguishes the intellectualized theology of Europe from the more straightforward mysticism of Asia.

The dance of the Maenads on the mountain side was not only fierce; it was an escape from the burdens and cares of civilization into the world of nonhuman beauty and the freedom of wind and stars. In a less frenzied mood they sing: Will they ever come to me, ever again, The long, long dances, On through the dark till the dim stars wane? Shall I feel the dew on my throat and the stream Of wind in my hair? Shall our white feet gleam In the dim expanses? O feet of the fawn to the greenwood fled, Alone in the grass and the loveliness; Leap of the hunted, no more in dread, Beyond the snares and the deadly press.

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